Refused immigration application, what's next?


Usually applicants would come to us with a rejection letter in hand. The first thing we always say is you should come to seek professional help earlier. The applicants, obviously , are under enormous pressure. Even though I know preventative actions, there is no way to turn back time. The best course of action is to provide applicants with the most acceptable and cost-effective strategy, given the “after-the-rejection-fact” options available.

Having said that, I recently, just two weeks ago, had a rejection from a case I was working on. It’s my first refusal in 2017. It’s fair to say getting a rejection letter is never pleasant. On the bright side, legal knowledge and experience can calm down feelings of frustration. The work permit was refused based on “wrong in law or wrong in fact or mixture of both” decision. IRCC (Immigration, Refugee, Citizenship Canada) deals with thousands of permits every day, thus mistakes happen. It’s my obligation to inform the client to stop working. Luckily, IRCC approved the application a few days later (avoided the expense and delay of re-apply). The applicant was glad to resume working with minimum loss.

Now, what should you do if you want to challenge the refusal?

There're several legal remedies (actions, solution, steps) you could take when you get a refusal letter.

Family Sponsorship, including spouse, children, parents and grandparents get refused –

--- Call an immigration professional

--- Go for IRB (Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada) appeal. Your case will be reviewed by a judge from Immigration Appeal Division. New evidence and witnesses can be introduced. You’ll have at least an entire day to present your case. In an appeal, the decision maker (immigration judge) can substitute their own decision for that of the original decision maker. With sufficient evidence and professional preparation, the chances to obtain an approval on the appeal day is promising. If you have a spousal application refusal based on suspicion of marriage in convenience, or a parents application refusal based on insufficient tax amount, your successful chances are higher, and process time is less, comparing with re-apply.

You may even have the option to go for a shorter (1-2 hours) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Conference to present your case privately. This could be arranged a few months after the sponsorship refusal. If ADR is successful, you don’t need to go to IAD for the full hearing.

Residency Obligation Breach, including overseas report and departure order issued at Port of Entry.—

--- Call an immigration professional

--- Go for IRB appeal. You can go to Immigration appeal division to challenge a breach of residency obligation report (A44 report), regardless it’s issued overseas or at Port of Entry in Canada. You can challenge the required days calculation, maybe you have lived for 730 days, maybe you’re accompanying Canadian Citizen spouse or parents overseas, the officer did do the calculation wrong. Or perhaps you have not lived for 730 days, but you have personal reasons for it, and they’re out of your control, then you can challenge the negative decision based on Humanitarian and Compassionate considerations. By seeking immigration professional’s help at the earliest possible date, your retain PR status chances will increase.

Express Entry, Skilled Worker , Economic class applications get refused

--- Call an immigration professional

--- Re-apply or go for Judicial Review.

Most likely Express Entry cases are rejected for incomplete submission. Since the initiation of Express Entry in 2015, the program processes qualified skilled worker cases fast-track because applicants send in all documentations, including medical and criminal, all at once. For incomplete submission, you may look for an immigration professional to assist you to ask Visa Officer re-open the case. If not successful, your option is to re-apply. You’ll lose your standing on the original draw; your first attempt governmental fee will not be refunded; and your will, unfortunately, have a record of refusal.

Some cases are rejected for insufficient work reference letter. You may file an Application for Leave and Judicial Review. Different from IRB appeal, Judicial Review is a federal court level decision, and even if JR allows your case, you don’t get approved right away (in IRB you can). JR judge can only send the case back to IRCC for re-consideration if JR allows your case. In Judicial Review, the judge is limited to “reviewing” the original decision to see whether it was made according to the law, fact or rules of procedural fairness. Generally speaking, no new evidence is allowed to be presented here. It’s a lengthy and costly process. Ask an immigration professional for advice as to re-apply or JR.

Visitor Visa, Temporary Resident get refused

--- Call an immigration professional

--- Re-apply or go for Judicial Review.

Tourist visas are easy to get, considering the need of travel in a globalized world. You may get refused based on immigration intention and history.

Re-apply only if you can provide substantially convincing evidence that you will return to your home residence after short visit to Canada.

Go for judicial review if you’ve been rejected more than twice, with the same or different reason. Just to be clear, not all judicial review will end up in front of a judge. The opposing counsel from IRCC, are likely to settle if you have convincing evidence.

Work Permit or Study Permit, Temporary Resident get refused

--- Call an immigration professional

--- Re-apply or Ask for Re-consideration.

Re-apply only if you have new/updated documents from your employer or school. Second attempt application governmental fees will apply.

You’re considered out of status the day you received the refusal decision. You don’t have automatic valid visitor status after work permit or study permit refusal. In the work permit refusal case I mentioned at the beginning of the article, asking for re-consideration without additional application fees and evidence is something you may file if you know the law and fastest way to communicate with IRCC.

To sum up, the course of action to take depends upon the type of application that has been made. It is best to consult with an immigration professional to decide what the best option and strategy. Immigration Consultants (ICCRC members) are qualified by regulation to represent clients before the IRB appeals. However, not all, in fact only less than 3% of consultants are specialized in IRB appeal. Only lawyers (provincial bar association members), are able to appear before the JR Federal Court. Avery Liao is a consultant specializing in IRB appeal and also works with immigration lawyers with JR cases.

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This website contains general information about legal matters. The information is not advice, and should not be treated as such. If you have any specific questions about any immigration legal matter you should consult a certified immigration professional. You should never delay seeking legal advice, disregard legal advice, or commence or discontinue any legal action because of information on this website.

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通常申请人来找移民顾问时,已经有封拒信在手。本能反应想说为什么不早点来就不会有拒信了。但考虑到申请人此时已经身份失效,压力巨大,即使我知道当初的预防措施,马后炮也无济于事。能给出的法律建议,只能是被拒后,综合分析申请人的案例,给出最可行,经济上可以接受的方案。

申请人自己处理的案子当然是拒信率高。也不是说移民顾问这里就没有没有拒信了。Avery这里两周前就有一个续工签被拒。是本所2017第一个拒信,读信当下自然是不好受,也可以理解申请人平日收到拒信的挫败感。好在读完信立马认出了大概是移民局日审千案,实习生出错了,可以理解。立马追加了有理有据的“wrong in law or wrong in fact or mixture of both”的请求,并通知申请人遵守法规暂停止工作。17号拒信,25号收到通过通知(其实22号就通过了)。对比重递申请,省时省力,把申请人的损失降到最小。

那么,有没有针对拒信的通识策略呢?

根据申请类别不同。大致上有以下法律策略。

家庭团聚申请,婚姻卡,子女团聚,父母团聚,祖父母团聚 被拒—

--- 致电专业移民顾问

--- 移民法庭上诉。在签证官那里被拒的案例将重新被Immigration Appeal Division的法官审查,你有权力列举所有对你有利的新的证据和证人。并至少有一天到法庭正式陈诉案例。 法官可以做出一个推翻签证官原有决定的判断。此类上诉成功率很高,只要是在足够证据和专业准备情形下,甚至可以当场得到通过决定。常见类别上诉成功率高,且耗时少的有: 签证官因怀疑婚姻不真实被拒的婚姻卡,因收入报税不够的父母团聚枫叶卡申请。

在某些特定情形下,还可能可以在被拒后数月,安排一个和正式出庭比,较短的庭前调解ADR会议。ADR如通过,则省去了正式出庭的步骤。

移民监未坐够,包括加拿大境外的身份失效报告和境内颁发的遣返令

--- 致电专业移民顾问

--- 移民法庭上诉。通常情况下无论你在境内还是境外,你没有满足五年住满两年的移民监,你可能会收到A44 report. 这个可能是你在境外申请枫叶卡或旅行文件拿到的,也可能是在境内入境海关签署的。如果是海关签署,你同时还会收到一个遣返令。你可以在规定时间内递交上诉申请。你有权力列举所有对你有利的新的证据和证人。上诉的理由可以是 1 海关和移民局计算天数失误,你有新证据支持天数,或者你应该计算上在海外陪同加拿大公民配偶和父母的天数,对方没算上 2 你虽然没住满730天,但你有不可控的理由,也就是我们通常说的人道主义考量。移民监未住够需要上诉,越早联系移民专家越大机会保住枫叶卡。

Express Entry 技术移民,及其它投资移民

--- 致电专业移民顾问

--- 重新申请或者联邦法庭司法复核。

大多数被拒的EE案例原因是材料不全。自2015年EE项目启动之日,审批速度极快是建立在申请需要一次性提供全部材料,包含体检和犯罪记录。材料不全不仅是耽误签证官时间,很多情况下完全不会被接收。如果遇到材料不全被关闭档案,可联系移民顾问,代理你向签证官要求重开案例。这一步还不行的话,只能重新递交申请。你将重新打分,抽签分数需要重新来过,申请费重交,并且,你的记录里会留下一个拒审记录。

有些技术移民案子不过的原因是工作证明信不合适。你可以要求联邦法庭司法复核。司法复核和移民法庭上诉的不同点在于,司法复核不代替原有决定(移民法庭是直接做出通过决定),司法复核这步如果是正面的,那么你的案子就回到移民局,再由一个签证官重新审核,这时候必须参考司法复核的意见作出决定。司法复核是一项复核程序,所以并没有新的证据和证人。司法复核费用较高,耗时较长。通常申请人需要在听取了移民专家的顾问后,决定是重申还是司法复核。

技术移民类没有在移民法庭上诉的资格。

旅游签证被拒

--- 致电专业移民顾问

--- 重新申请或者联邦法庭司法复核。

十年有效旅行签证在现在的年代已经很常见。被拒也很常见,理由通常是移民倾向和出境历史不够,过往没有遵守出入境条规等。

只有在有崭新,强有力的,不同于第一次申请的证据时,才建议递交第二次申请,否则申请多次结果一直是被据。新证据要支持你在短期旅行结束后会回到原住国。

在超过两次被拒后,可能会进入一个一直被拒的死循环。建议考虑司法复核。司法复核虽然耗时长,但不是所有案子都会最后安排正式出庭,面见法官。因旅游签要求司法复核的案例,多半可以和移民局法律代表协商,而通过旅签。

工作签证,学习签证被拒

--- 致电专业移民顾问

--- 重新申请或者联邦法庭司法复核。

只有在学校或工作单位有新的文件证据时,才建议尝试重递申请。重递申请,一般都是要重交官方申请费的。

必须要澄清的是:在收到工签学签续签拒信的当天,身份已处于自动失效,并没有自动转为旅行签。在文章开头我提及过工作签证拒签后再次通过的案例,并不具有重复性,属于每个案例单独操作,需要知道快速有效联系移民局的途径和理论依据。

综上所诉, 根据不同类别的申请,不同的申请人,不同的签证官决定,有不同的策略。建议是处理大事要谨慎,专业人士意见很重要。ICCRC认证的移民顾问可以在移民申请和IRB上诉有权限代理申请人,有权限不代表高效率。精通IRB 移民法庭上诉的移民顾问不会超过3%。各省认证的律师可以代理IRB,也能代理联邦法庭司法复核。Avery Liao 是精通移民法庭上诉的持证移民顾问,并和移民律师合作司法复核案例。

以上建议非法律建议,仅为笔者个人意见,仅供参考。法律常有特例不包含在通常情况下。有法律需求情形下,可联系笔者进行正式法律咨询,也可联系其它有执照专业人士,但并不能依赖本文进行个人错误操作。

本文中英文均是原创,非翻译文章,受版权保护。

#Immigrationlaw #immigrationrefusal

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