The Difference Between Canadian PR and Citizenship


枫叶卡和公民的区别

Citizenship Act marked the day June 19th, 2017 as a milestone. Not only did Senate pass the legislation on June 15 in a vote of 51 for and 29 against, but Royal Assent was also received on June 19. The good news for changes in measures contained in the new act is three years of physical residency instead of four. Meanwhile, you can count each day you spent as student or worker prior to becoming a Permanent Resident as a half-day towards the days calculation.

2017年6月19日,Bill C-6 公民法修改正式生效,此前4天参议院以51比29多票通过,只等最后一部的皇室批准。新的公民法对申请人的居住限制大大减少。最大的变化两条是四年改三年枫叶卡身份的居住可申公民(当然你不必需申),三年报税,且枫叶卡身份之前的加拿大学签,工签也可“半价”折算日期。

When you search the difference between PR and Citizen on CIC website, you’ll only find limited explanation. Many applicants who are qualified for Citizen choose not to apply simply because of avoiding the trouble of application for Chinese Visa. Yes, a Canadian Citizen does need a Chinese/Asian Visa to travel to Asia. Having said that, it would still be wise to be fully informed of the privilege of Citizenship before you make up your mind.

As far as immigration law is concerned, a person can only have one of the three statuses in Canada: Foreign National, Permanent Resident, or Citizen.

PR and Citizen refer to Canadian PR and Citizen in this article. U.S. Immigration law is similar, but you should consult with an U.S. attorney for details.

如果你搜索官网,我们只能查到最基础的PR和Citizenship的区别。有不少申请人为了能够用PR往返中国而不想申请中国签证,而一直不申请Citizenship, Citizenship的好处远比纸面上的说得多,下面就来全盘清点PR枫叶卡身份和Citizen 公民身份的相似和区别。

一般对于某国移民法,你只有三种身份:外籍人士,PR永居身份,和公民。

以下如无特殊说明,均指加拿大永居身份和加拿大公民。但美国移民法和加拿大类似,可供参考。

Here are the rights and privileges PR and Citizen share, but not available to Foreign Nationals.

Both PR and Citizen are free to do anything you like, full time, part time, multiple shifts, switching career, study (on full amount student loan), self-employed, entrepreneur, invest, or doing nothing at all. You don’t need special immigration permit to do these while Foreign Nationals normally need all kinds of permits to stay in Canada. Foreign national normally would consider being out of status without proper documentation.

Both PR and Citizen are eligible to apply governmental medical insurance, student loan, social assistance, Canada Pension Plan, Children’s benefit, waived tuition for public pre-K to 12 education, etc. You don’t have to work to enjoy these benefits (Foreign nationals need work permit to apply). Certain benefit restrictions may apply to PR based on family sponsorship.

Both PR and Citizen are protected by law and acts while living within Canada Border.

Both PR and Citizen can apply 10-year multiple entries, 2-year single stay Parent SuperVisa.

Both PR and Citizen can sponsor their parents for PR, with income and tax specific requirement. Parents of PR or Citizen are treated the same, given the other criteria are met.

区别于外籍人士,枫叶卡和公民同样拥有的权力:

在加拿大境内自由工作,学习,生活,不需要任何额外签证证明。对比之下外籍人士必须有工签,学签等对应签证才能持续在加拿大境内生活,违规哪怕一天都会对未来身份产生影响。

申请加拿大政府的医疗保险,助学贷款,社会福利,养老福利,儿童牛奶金,免费公立中小学教育,等福利。并没有必须工作的限制。(注,如果你是家庭团聚拿到的枫叶卡,仍有少许限制)

在加拿大境内时,受加拿大法律保护。

均可替父母申请10年有效,入境2年的Supervisa 探亲签证

均可替父母申请移民,有工资报税要求。但枫叶卡和公民在父母担保上无区别。

Here are the rights and privileges that differ:

Only Citizen can vote. PR can’t.

Citizen can come and go inside Canada as wishes. PR has to follow 2 out of 5 years residency obligation.

When failed to abide residency obligation, PR may still have a chance to appeal and get PR status back. However, loss of PR status due to residency happens to thousands of PR each year *. Unless war criminal or serious misrepresentation, revoked citizenship happens extremely rare.

PR can apply regular governmental job, but Citizen will be given priority. Such as positions in Canadian intellectual offices, or scientific research and development and innovation positions, will be given priority to Citizens, then PR, foreign nationals being the last tier.

PR can’t run for office or hold high-level clearance positions. Qualified Citizen can.

枫叶卡和公民的区别

枫叶卡无政治投票权,公民有投票权。

枫叶卡得满足每五年住两年的移民监,方可持续自由进出加拿大。公民不用坐移民监 。

枫叶卡的移民监不是严格强制,在规定法律情形下可以宽容,但因移民监丢失枫叶卡仍属于常见案例(每年大约有至少2千起因移民监主动或被动放弃枫叶卡的案例*)。 公民除非是war criminal一类,通常不会取消,取消的都是极度极端案例会上报高级法院或国会备案(但凡有案例都是教科书级别案例)。

枫叶卡可以从事普通政府工作,但公民享受优先。比如笔者曾经关注过国家专利局和自然科技部门的普通政府职位,公民有优先权,枫叶卡级别排后,外籍人士基本很难在政府工作。

需要竞选的政府职位,和更严格背景调查(high-level clearance)的职位,枫叶卡不可参加。

PR may face deportation when charged under a criminal code for more than 6 months. Generally speaking, citizen will not be deported when facing criminal charges.

When a PR goes to a third country other than his/her home country or Canada, he/she will need to apply Visa based on his/her original citizenship. While Canada passport holders can enjoy visa exemption to dozens of countries around the globe, including USA, Europe, British Crown Colony. However, Canadian Citizens do need a China Visa.

Per reciprocal agreement with USA, Canada citizens with skilled experience and education, can work for any qualified US employers indefinitely, special labour certificate or lengthy processing time of H visa is waived.

Per reciprocal agreement to facilitate youth exchange, Canada citizens, younger than 35 years old, can apply non-restricted 12 to 24 months work permit to work in countries in Europe, British Crown Colony, etc.

枫叶卡如有犯罪刑法超过6个月处罚会面临遣送出境。公民均以加拿大境内刑法处置,没有遣送规定。

枫叶卡签证第三国需满足原国籍要求,比如去美国仍需旅游签证,欧洲也须申根签证。公民可享受北美南美,英联邦,欧盟多国免签待遇。只是中国等亚洲国家要求加拿大公民签证。

加拿大公民有和美国互惠协议,可提供给技术人士(大学学历或等同,不限年龄不限时间)不需特殊审批,可替任何合法雇主工作的工签。

加拿大公民和英联邦(英澳爱尔兰新西兰),欧盟,日本等国的互惠政策,35岁以下任何资历的年轻人可有1至2年,交流工作机会,不需特殊审批,可替任何合法雇主工作。

Both PR and Citizen can sponsor their spouse and children for PR. PR can only submit sponsorship when the sponsor is in Canada, whereas Citizen can put in sponsorship application either in or outside of Canada.

When living outside of Canada, only citizenship will grant you protection from Canadian Embassy. Especially if you live in a war country, you seek help to your citizenship country. Say if you have a South Korean Citizenship and Canada PR, you cannot go to Canada Embassy for eviction assistance. Again, there may be exceptions.

The last clause is not a legal term, but more of a common knowledge one: For expatriate families, Canada citizen get global pay scale, on the contrast, Chinese citizen, even if this expat has lived in Canada for a long time, when he/she been reassigned to China, you only get local pay scale, which often three times less than Global Pay.

*Of thousands renouncing PR cases each year, seldom does applicant understand the legal right and pathways to maintain PR status. It’s sad for me to see people give up PR status without knowing their options. Please consult with Avery before you renounce PR.

This blog passage is for personal opinion and information only. The context in this article is not legal advice.

The author is Avery Liao for both languages, please don’t violate copyright act by copying without authorization.

均可替配偶和孩子申请枫叶卡身份。但担保人是枫叶卡只能居住在加拿大境内申请,担保人是加拿大公民,可在加拿大海外申请,也可以境内申请。

在加拿大境外时,只有加拿大公民受加拿大法律保护。假设一对夫妻,一人是公民,一人是韩国国籍兼加拿大枫叶卡,同时居住在战乱第三国。在战争紧急撤离时,通常情形下,只能寻求公民所属地使馆的帮助,加拿大公民可通过加拿大使馆撤离,韩国公民,即使有枫叶卡也只能寻求韩国使馆撤离。

此项非法律条款,而是商业社会约定俗成条款:加拿大公民驻海外跨国公司,国际学校等工作时,多为全球高薪水准(Global Pay)。加拿大枫叶卡驻海外工作,如中国国籍加拿大枫叶卡持有者被外派至中国上海跨国公司,多为当地薪金标准(Local Pay). Global Pay和Local Pay的差距可达三倍以上。

*在每年数以千计的因移民监而放弃枫叶卡的案例中,只有极少数人了解有合法上诉保留枫叶卡身份的选择,多数申请人在未了解全面选择即听信非专业人士填写放弃表格,放弃流程一般数日可批准,但放弃的是花费心力拿到的身份,请咨询全面人士了解保过期枫叶卡选择后再作决定。点击页面了解更多。

*以上建议非法律建议,仅为笔者个人意见,仅供参考。法律常有特例不包含在通常情况下。

本文中英文均是原创,非翻译文章,受版权保护。

images by CICNEWS via"https://www.cicnews.com/2017/06/bill-c6-passed-giving-immigrants-smoother-pathway-canadian-citizenship-069248.html"


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